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anyaha เมื่อ กรกฎาคม 01, 2019, 12:36:02 AM
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สั่งซื้อการ์ตูน แกล้งจุ๊บให้รู้ว่ารัก 12 เล่มจบ ที่นี่



อาอิฮาระ โคโทโกะ ยื่นจดหมายรักให้กับชายในดวงใจที่อยู่ต่างห้องเรียนเป็นหนุ่มฮอตหน้าตาดีเรียนเก่งเป็นอัจฉริยะที่ชื่อ อิริเอะ นาโอกิ และถูกปฏิเสธในทันใด ทั้งๆ ที่ยังไม่ได้เปิดอ่านเลยสักนิด แต่จู่ๆก็เกิดอุบัติเหตุที่ชักนำให้โคโทโกะต้องไปอาศัยอยู่ที่บ้านของนาโอกิ ด้วยความต้อนรับของแม่ของอิริเอะที่เอ็นดูโคโทโกะมากและอยากให้มาเป็นสะใภ้ ในการสอบกลางภาค นาโอกิ ได้ติวเข้มให้กับโคโทโกะจนได้คะแนนอยู่ในระดับแนวหน้า เป็นเหตุให้ฏคโทโกะยิ่งเป็นปลื้มในตัวนาโอกิทวีคูณ



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anyaha เมื่อ กรกฎาคม 01, 2019, 12:36:29 AM
200 Best Video Games of All Time - Wonder Boy III: The Dragon’s Trap


Wonder Boy III begins as you play out the ending of its predecessor, Wonder Boy in Monster Land. Things go a little awry when, upon navigating the castle and defeating the evil Meka Dragon, the hero is cursed with an inhuman dragon form. Throughout the journey to change back into a human, the hero gains the ability to turn into other animals – beyond Lizard Man, the fire breathing form you start out as, you can become Mouse Man (to fit into small spaces and climb on certain surfaces), Piranha Man (to swim), Lion Man (to break certain bricks), and Hawk Man (to fly).

The previous game, which began as an arcade title, was sort of a weird mish-mash between an action game and an RPG. The path through the game was linear, but you obtained gold to buy new equipment and increase your strength. When moved to a console platform, The Dragon's Trap expands its world to something akin to a Metroidvania. Other similar games of the era – Castlevania II: Simon's Quest, The Goonies II, and Metroid, of course – all reveled in obtuseness, with gigantic, maze-like worlds that were hard to navigate. Wonder Boy III is far more user-friendly, offering a simple town hub that spreads out in a few directions, and a world with distinct themes – jungle, beach, mountain, desert, and so forth. Outside of a few hidden doors, it’s hard to get stuck or lost, and most areas are linear, challenging your ability to fight enemies rather than overwhelming you with confusion.

That approachability never detracts from the game world, however, because it's so cleverly constructed. In most games of the time, falling in water meant your death – here, it leads to underwater realms, offering additional areas to explore. Each new game begins in the central town, next to a seemingly impassable wall, but once you obtain the Hawk Man form, you can fly over it and access a whole new part of the map. None of this is telegraphed, it's simply something that the game expects you to be curious about. You can even visit the crumbling castle from the prologue, now derelict except for assorted enemies.

The aesthetics play a huge part, too. Wonder Boy III has colorful and vibrant visuals – some of the best on an 8-bit platform. Each of the animal forms is distinctly adorable, despite never uttering a word. The enemies also have the same amount of personality, wincing comically at every strike of damage taken. The music is catchy, and even the sound effects, from the trampoline *bounce* jumping noise to the *plunk* of falling coins, ooze character. It all comes together to create a world that's a delight to explore. -Kurt Kalata

The next game in the series, Wonder Boy in Monster World, is similar to The Dragon's Trap, but removes the fun animal forms, and in general feels clunkier. The final game in the series, Monster World IV, scales back the exploratory elements, instead concentrating on action-platforming, and stars a female character in an Arabian setting. Wayforward's Shantae series is also clearly inspired by the Monster World games. Starring a charming, purple haired genie, it presents a similarly comical world along with exploratory elements. The first two games, initially released on the Game Boy Color and DSi, are compromised in various ways, but the third, Shantae and the Pirate's Curse, is a solid game with fantastic pixel artwork and an incredibly catchy soundtrack. -KK


anyaha เมื่อ กรกฎาคม 01, 2019, 12:37:05 AM
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anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:06:10 AM
10 NEW DISCOVER ON THE WORLD 4
1. Elephants could help treat cancer
Elephants have 100 times as many cells as humans, so should be 100 times more likely to get cancer. Yet only five per cent of elephants die from the disease, compared to up to 25 per cent of humans. This is because they have more copies of a tumour-suppressing gene called TP53, which researchers hope will help develop new ways to treat cancer in humans.

2. Black holes sound likestatic
You’ll never be able get close enough to hear one in person, but if you want to knowwhat a black hole sounds like, just switch to the empty space on your radio dial. By turning the flickering light emitted in the vicinity of black holes into sound waves, scientists have worked out that they probably sound just like white noise.

3. Smart missiles can change course mid-flight
With unmanned drones becoming increasingly popular in military combat, the US Army has developed a new way to blast them out of the sky. The Enhanced Area Protection and Survivability system uses a 50-millimetre (two-inch) cannon to launch missiles, then a controller vehicle on the ground can direct them towards the drone by steering their thrusters remotely.

4. You can un-boil egg whites
If you change your mind while preparing your breakfast, then all you need is a ‘vortex fluid device’. This machine has been developed by scientists to spin boiled eggs at high speed. The stress of the spinning causes the proteins in the egg to re-fold, reverting the egg white to its raw state. Outside of the kitchen, this technique could have useful applications for drug development, as proteins in drugs often misfold.

5. There was a hole in the Sun
Don’t worry, our source of heat and light wasn’t in danger of breaking into pieces. The hole was actually in the Sun’s magnetised atmosphere, called the corona, and it’s a fairly regular occurrence. It’s caused when magnetic field lines protruding from the Sun’s interior open up, enabling hot plasma to escape the corona and enter space. If this plasma reaches Earth, it can intensify the colourful auroras we see in the sky.

6. Butterflies are shrinking Warmer summers in
Greenland are increasing the metabolism of the island’s butterflies, causing them to shrink. Unlike humans, who use more energy when it’s chilly, cold-blooded butterfly larvae need more energy in higher temperatures. As they have struggled to find enough food to maintain the energy levels needed for the warming climate, their growth rate has slowed, resulting in smaller larvae and therefore smaller adult butterflies.

7. Lexus made a working car out of cardboard
Using just 1,700 sheets of cardboard, a steel and aluminium frame, an electric motor and some clever 3D modelling, Lexus has built a drivable, life-size replica of its IS saloon car. Just don’t try to drive it in the rain.

8. This tiny camera can squeeze in 16 lenses
Light’s L16 camera contains 16 separate lenses and sensors. When you pinch and zoom using the touchscreen, ten of these lenses capture images within the desired focal range. These pictures are then stitched together to create one big photo with an up to 52-megapixel resolution.

9. Reading out loud helps you remember
Whether you’re revising for a test, or trying to learn your shopping list, reading it aloud can help you remember. However, researchers have now found that reading it to a friend is even better, as your brain can use multisensory information related to the exchange, as well as information about how you produced the words, when trying to recall what you said.

10. Most mammals take 21 seconds to pee
An elephant’s bladder can hold five gallons of urine, while a cat’s can hold just five millilitres, but both take the same amount of time to empty. Scientists found that larger animals have longer urethras, giving the urine more of a gravitational boost on its way out. This helps it flow faster so the bladder empties in just 21 seconds.

10 SCIENCE FACTS YOU DIDN'T LEARN IN SCHOOL
10 AMAZING EXPERIMENTS YOU CAN DO AT HOME
AROUND THE WORLD TOP LIST



anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:07:55 AM
Warming oceans killing coral reefs
Coral reefs around the world are experiencing a massive die-off that could be the worst in recorded history, a new study warns. Stoked by climate change and a powerful El Ni?o, record-high ocean temperatures have triggered the global event, which began last year and is expected to destroy 5% of the world’s coral reefs by 2016. The temperature changes brought about a phenomenon known as bleaching, in which corals expel symbiotic algae that provide essential nutrients, causing the brilliantly coloured reefs to turn ghostly white. A resilient reef can recover if water temperatures return to normal quickly, but if algae loss is prolonged, the coral eventually dies. Two similar global events took place in 1998 and 2010, but researchers predict the current one is likely to be more persistent – and deadly. This year as many as 95%of all US coral reefs are expected to see ocean temperatures that can lead to bleaching. Of those areas, 60% are likely to be “hit with severe thermal stress, and we’re going to see a lot of corals dying”, Mark Eakin of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) told The Washington Post. Oceanographers caution that the long-term consequences of coral bleaching could be severe. “One in every four species of fish lives on a coral reef,” says Ove Hoegh Guldberg, of Australia’s University of Queensland. “Coral reefs provide food and livelihood to 500 million people.”

HRT debate reignited
Is hormone replacement therapy safe after all? In the past 15 years or so, the number of women taking HRT to stave off hot flushes, mood swings and other symptoms of menopause has dropped, after research found links between the drugs and conditions including diabetes, heart disease and breast cancer. But a newly published study, in which women who took HRT were tracked for a decade, found no significant link between serious illnesses and the treatment – which boosts levels of the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. The researchers, from New York University, said the women didn’t even put on any more body fat – another common concern – than a comparison group of women who didn’t take HRT during menopause. They conclude the risks of the drugs have been overstated and are clearly outweighted by the benefits. However, critics of the study – which involved only 80 women on HRT – say it is too limited, and further research is needed.

New species in the Himalayas
A bright blue dwarf snakehead fish that can wriggle around on land for up to four days at a time and a snub-nosed monkey that sneezes when it rains: These are just two of 211 new species found over the past five years in the Eastern Himalayas, the World Wildlife Federation reports. The region, which spans central Nepal, Myanmar and Bhutan, as well as northeastern India and southern Tibet, has seen the discovery of 26 fish, 133 plants, 39 invertebrates, 10 amphibians, one reptile, a bird and a mammal. The question is, how long will they survive? Researchers say many of these newly found species are under mortal threat – climate change, deforestation, poaching and pollution have left only 25% of the Eastern Himalayas’ original habitats intact. “These discoveries show that there is still a huge amount to learn about the species that share our world,” the WWF-UK’s chief adviser of species, Heather Sohl, tells The Guardian. “It is a stark reminder that if we don’t act now to protect these fragile ecosystems, untold natural riches could be lost forever.”

IVF link to ovarian cancer
Women who go through IVF are a third more likely to develop ovarian cancer, a new study has suggested. Scientists analysed the records of quarter of a million British women who’d had the fertility treatment, and – in initial findings, revealed last week – concluded they had a 37% greater risk of developing the cancer than other women. It’s possible the treatment itself somehow increases patients’ vulnerability to the disease – women were found to be most at risk in the three years after starting IVF – but researchers say it’s more likely the cancer was linked to the underlying problems that caused their infertility. In any case, though the variation in risk was significant, the absolute risk remained very small: 15 women out of every 10,000 who had IVF developed ovarian cancer in the period of the study; the standard rate was 11 in 10,000.

The raisin intelligence test
To get a sense of how clever a two-year-old will be at the age of eight, put a raisin or a piece of chocolate under a cup, instruct the infant not to eat it until they’re told to and see what happens. If they’re able to muster the self-control to resist the sweet treat for a full minute, chances are, they’ll end up doing better at school than their peers. The test – a variation on the famous marshmallow test – was applied to more than 500 children involved in a longitudinal study in Germany when they were 20 months old. The raisin was put under a cup that was opaque, but within easy reach, and they were told not to touch it until they were told they could – which was after 60 seconds. Of the children tested, 37% either didn’t wait, or only lasted 10 seconds before touching the raisin, 39% waited between 11-59 seconds and only 24% waited for 60 seconds. Immediate results showed that children who’d been born prematurely had less self-control than those born at full term. Follow-up research found that by the age of eight, the children who’d demonstrated good self-control performed, on average, 19% better in standardised aptitude tests. The team, led by Professor Dieter Wolke of Warwick University, believe it could be used to help identify children who are likely to suffer cognitive problems, so that they can be given extra help early on.

Curbing nearsightedness
Myopia, or nearsightedness, affects more than 40% of Americans and a growing number of children around the world. But new research suggests this modernday epidemic could be curbed by simple eye drops. While the effects of nearsightedness are easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses, the condition can sometimes lead to more serious eye disorders, such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, and premature cataracts. In a five-year trial on 400 children ages 6 to 12, scientists in Singapore examined whether daily doses of atropine, a powerful medication used to treat lazy eye, could help prevent myopia from worsening. They found it could – and, to their surprise, that the lowest dose was the most effective. That’s significant, because in high doses, atropine can cause side effects including light sensitivity and blurry vision. “We slowed the progression of myopia by 50%,” the study’s lead author, Donald Tan, tells The Washington Post. “For the first time, we might have a treatment for myopia in children that looks to be effective.”

Man’s mysterious ancient cousin
Five years after identifying a previously unknown, long-extinct human species called the Denisovans, scientists have used genetic analysis to shed new light on our mysterious relatives. The Denisovans are named after the cave in Siberia’s Altai Mountains where their remains were found. A lack of intact bones has prevented scientists from reconstructing how the species looked or lived, but DNA analysis on a 110,000-year-old Denisovan molar has established that they were close cousins of Neanderthals, and distant ones of early Homo sapiens. They likely lived alongside and interbred with both of those species – and possibly another unidentified relative of modern humans – for about 60,000 years. The analysis also suggests that Denisovans were more widespread and genetically more diverse than Neanderthals, who became inbred after ice age glaciers trapped them in southern Europe. That theory is supported by the fact that Australian aborigines, New Guineans and Polynesians all have elements of Denisovan DNA. “The world at that time must have been far more complex than previously thought,” the study’s author, Susanna Sawyer, tells National Geographic. “Who knows what other hominids lived and what effects they had on us?”

Earth’s vast, tainted groundwater reservoir
The amount of groundwater lying just beneath the Earth’s surface is vastly larger than previously thought – but almost none of it is of any use. Until recently, scientists based their estimates for the earth’s total groundwater – water that seeped underground and became trapped in tiny spaces between rock, sand and soil – on crude calculations made in the 1970s. But now, using data from more than 1 million watersheds and 40,000 groundwater models, hydrologists have estimated that there is as much as 6 quintillion (6,000,000,000,000,000,000) gallons of water in the upper 1.2 miles of the Earth’s crust. If that water were pumped out and spread across the continents, it would form a layer 600 feet deep. Unfortunately, almost all of this groundwater is old, salty, and contaminated with arsenic and uranium – making it useless to the 2 billion people living in arid regions who rely on wells and springs for fresh water. Just 6% of groundwater stores are younger than 50 years old, drinkable and renewable within a human lifetime – a smaller, more finite supply than previously estimated. The researchers say their findings could help governments better manage their groundwater reservoirs amid rising global demand. “We’re using our groundwater resources too fast – faster than they’re being renewed,” the study’s lead author, Tom Gleeson, tells CSMonitor.com. “We want to find out how long before we run out of this critical resource.”

anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:08:13 AM
Surgery to delay menopause
Doctors in Britain have launched a controversial treatment designed to give women the option of delaying the menopause, reports The Sunday Times. The procedure, which costs between ?7,000 and ?11,000, involves removing and freezing a section of ovarian tissue, which is then transplanted back at the onset of menopause. This “tricks” the woman’s body into producing sex hormones that delay the menopause – potentially by as much as two decades, the scientists claim. Nine British women aged between 22 and 36 have so far undergone the surgery, which is a variant of a technique already used to preserve the fertility of female cancer patients. According to the doctors, it could reduce the portion of women’s lives which they have to spend coping with the unpleasant side-effects of the menopause, which can range from hot flushes and night sweats to more serious complications such as osteoporosis. But some are expected to use the therapy to extend their fertility. “If this procedure allows women to nail their career and feel that burden taken off their shoulders, and if by 40 they still want a baby but are unable to conceive naturally, they can go back to their tissue which they froze at 30,” said Prof Simon Fishel, chief executive of ProFam, the Birmingham company behind the treatment.

How to stare down a seagull
Seaside diners can help prevent their lunches being nicked by seagulls simply by maintaining eye contact with the birds, a new study claims. Madeleine Goumas, of the University of Exeter, visited coastal towns in Cornwall and lured herring seagulls into her vicinity with a portion of chips sealed in a transparent bag. Half the time, when a seagull approached, she looked away; the other half, she locked eyes with it. Birds that were stared at were less likely to make a bid for the food, and when they did, they typically took 21 seconds longer to do so. Writing in Biology Letters, Goumas attributes this to “gaze aversion” – an instinctual nerviness about being watched. However, her research suggests that seagulls don’t entirely deserve their reputation as fearless scavengers: of the 74 birds she targeted, only 26% were bold enough to approach the chips.

Alzheimer’s blood test
A blood test that can detect the earliest non-symptomatic signs of Alzheimer’s disease – the build-up of beta-amyloid proteins in the brain – has been developed by US scientists. At present, the only way to identify the plaques (which can appear two decades before the onset of cognitive decline) is with expensive and timeconsuming brain scans. In a trial on 158 people aged over 50, the new test achieved the same results as the scans 90% of the time, suggesting it could be a cheap and reliable way to identify those most susceptible to the disease. Yet it won’t be appearing in surgeries soon: since no treatment for Alzheimer’s has ever made it through clinical trials, screening for the disease would be pointless. Instead, the test’s greatest short-term impact is expected to be on dementia research. “The big benefit with this test is that you can run trials much faster, recruit and identify people much more quickly,” said Dr Randall J. Bateman of the Washington University School of Medicine, who led the study. “If we can run these trials faster we will get to effective therapies much faster.”

Breast cancer “liquid biopsy”
A new, personalised blood test for breast cancer makes it possible to spot the return of the disease nearly a year earlier than is currently possible, a study suggests. The “liquid biopsy”, developed by the Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, looks for telltale DNA markers in the blood based on the genetic make-up of the initial tumour. When trialled on 144 patients who had previously had breast cancer, 29 of whom relapsed over a three-year period, the test successfully detected cancer DNA in the blood of 23 of the patients, typically doing so 10.7 months before symptoms returned or the tumours showed up on a scan. “The potential of this blood test to spot the signs of breast cancer returning, or spreading much earlier, in NHS clinics is extremely exciting,” said Dr Simon Vincent of the combined charity Breast Cancer Care and Breast Cancer Now, which largely funded the research.

Biggest-ever parrot discovered
In 2008, the fossilised leg bones of a large bird were discovered on the site of an ancient lake in Central Otago, New Zealand. Initially assumed to be from an eagle, the Miocene-era fossils, thought to be 19 million years old, languished in lab storage for a decade before palaeontologists reanalysed them earlier this year. And their conclusion is that the bones almost certainly belonged to a giant parrot, which stood nearly one metre tall and weighed 7kg – making it twice as heavy as the biggest known parrot, the critically endangered kakapo, also from New Zealand. The parrot’s name, Heracles inexpectatus, reflects the shock nature of the discovery. Yet it fits into the story of New Zealand, where an absence of large mammals enabled birds to become the top predators and often grow to huge sizes – most notoriously the moa, which could be three metres tall. Heracles inexpectatus is thought to have been flightless, and it “may well have dined on more than just conventional parrot foods, perhaps even other parrots”, said co-author Prof Mike Archer, from the University of New South Wales, Australia.

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anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:08:35 AM
Is muscle memory real
Is muscle memory real
There are two kinds, both very real. The first, properly called ‘procedural memory’ strengthens the synaptic pathways in your brain for specific coordinated sequences of muscle movements that you perform often. This is what allows a guitar player to form the chord shapes without consciously considering the position of each finger, for example. There is another kind of muscle memory though. If you have previously put on muscle mass through training, then it is easier to bulk up again in the future than if you had never trained before. Muscle cells gain extra nuclei during training and these can last for 15 years, even after the muscle fibres have shrunk back to normal size. It is as if the muscles ‘remember’ their previous strength and find it easier to return to that level.

How does ocean acidification impact marine life
There’ll be many losers, and perhaps some winners among marine life as the oceans absorb humanity’s CO2 and pH falls. An eight-year study involving 250 scientists recently revealed a complex picture of changes rippling through food webs. Organisms with carbonate exoskeletons like starfish, mussels and swimming snails called sea butterflies – tend to suffer because their shells become unstable. Young animals are especially at risk; cod larvae are twice as likely to die at lower pH. Barnacles and a few other robust animals can adapt but may still suffer from the combined impacts of other threats, like plastic pollution and rising temperatures.

Will Europe get more hurricanes in the future
Hurricanes form over warm ocean waters, making them relatively uncommon in Europe. Hurricanes born in tropical Atlantic waters are occasionally diverted northwest by the jet stream, but gradually peter out as they hit colder waters. By the time they arrive in Europe they may heavy rain and high winds, as seen with ex-hurricane Ophelia in October. As our climate changes, warmer waters in the North Atlantic could lead to hurricanes retaining their intensity over greater distances, increasing the frequency with which such ‘super storms’ occur in western Europe.

Would alien life needto have DNA
The role of DNA is to provide instructions that allow amino acids (the building blocks of proteins needed for the processes of life) to be assembled correctly. DNA also allows those same instructions to be passed down the generations. But DNA isn’t unique in this ability, as the related molecule RNA can perform similar functions. It’s also possible that alien life
exploits radically different ways of achieving similar ends.

Is human eyesight getting worse
Shortsightedness (myopia) certainly is. There has been an epidemic of myopia in the last 100 years and a third of adults in the US and 90 per cent of adults in Taiwan now need to wear corrective lenses. Myopia is inherited, but the reason for the recent increase seems to be more time spent indoors looking at close objects, especially books and screens.

WHAT WOULD LIVING ON MARS DO TO MY BODY
1. LOWER GRAVITY
The effects of zero gravity have been studied on the International Space Station, but the long term impact of low gravity is unknown. An hour in a special gym each day might be enough to stave off muscle wasting and bone loss. But reduced gravity also lowers red blood cell counts and compromises your immune system, and a treadmill won’t help with that.

2. RADIATION
The surface radiation on Mars is 0.67mSv per day, which is the equivalent exposure of a daily hip X-ray. This radiation is mostly in the form of galactic cosmic rays. Martian soil could be used to shield a Mars base from the rays, but the covering would need to be five metres thick. Even for a three-year round trip to Mars, studies predict a 10 per cent chance of developing a fatal cancer.

3. TOXIC SOIL
Martian topsoil is full of highly reactive perchlorates, formed by the action of UV rays. Some of this dust will inevitably be tracked into the Mars base and be inhaled or ingested. Perchlorate poisoning is reversible, but on Mars you’ll be constantly exposed. Just 25 parts per billion in drinking water will suppress thyroid function and raise blood pressure. Higher doses cause lung damage.

Why do we have to dig so deep to uncover ancient ruins
There is a survivorship bias at work here: buildings and monuments left exposed on the surface don’t last very long. Humans steal the best bits to reuse in other buildings, and erosion wears everything else to dust. So the only ancient ruins we find are the ones that were buried. But they got buried in the first place because the ground level of ancient cities tended to steadily rise. Settlements constantly imported food and building materials for the population, but getting rid of waste and rubbish was a much lower priority. New houses were built on top of the ruins of old ones because hauling away rubble was labour intensive and it was much easier to simply spread it out and build straight on top. Rivers periodically flooded and added a layer of silt, while in dry regions the wind was constantly blowing in sand and dust. (The Sphinx was buried up to its head in sand until archaeologists re-excavated it in 1817.) When ancient towns were abandoned entirely, plant seeds quickly took root and created more bulk from the CO2 they pulled from the air. Their roots stabilised the soil created from rotting plant matter and the layers gradually built up.

How strong is an ant
Asian weaver ants can carry 500mg – about 100 times their body weight. At their tiny scale though, carrying heavy objects is less about muscle strength and more about grip. Ants have self-cleaning sticky pads on their feet and can vary the size of the contact patch on the ground so they aren’t overbalanced by their load, even when upside-down!

Why is gold yellow
Simple chemistry predicts that gold and silver should have the same silvery appearance. To explain gold’s colour we need something else – a mix of quantum mechanics and Einstein’s Special Relativity. Quantum mechanics describes an atom’s electrons sitting in discrete orbitals. In the case of silver, it takes a high-energy, ultraviolet photon to kick an electron up to a higher orbital. Lower-energy, visible photons are reflected back so silver acts like a mirror. Relativity comes into play because, due to the size of gold atoms, its electrons are travelling at over half the speed of light. Einstein’s theory tells us that at these speeds the mass of the electrons increases, which in turn means the energy needed to kick them up to another orbital is reduced. So lower-energy blue photons are absorbed, and don’t get reflected by the gold. And if blue is removed, we see yellow.

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anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:08:59 AM
Man evolved to throw punches
Did the human hand evolve so that early man could punch his love rivals in the face? The received wisdom is that shorter palms and fingers, and longer, stronger thumbs, made early man better able to manipulate tools, and that it was this that drove their evolution. But scientists at the University of Utah have run a gruesome study to back the theory that these proportions also confer another advantage – the ability to throw a powerful punch. For the study, the researchers took arms from nine cadavers, and attached fishing wire to the tendons in the hands. Tightening or slackening these wires enabled them to create either an open hand for slapping, or a closed fist for punching. Then, using a pendulum, they swung the dead arms towards a force-measuring pad. Their results showed that a punch with a clenched fist has twice the force of a slap with an open hand, and also that the strain on the metacarpal bones is greatly reduced when the fist is clenched. “An individual who could strike with a clenched fist was better able to fight for mates, and thus more likely to reproduce,” said Professor David Carrier, the study’s author.

A dry January does work
Countless people gearing up for the Christmas party season will be pencilling in a dry, or teetotal, January, in the hopes it will undo some of the damage wrought by festive drinking. And it could work, says The Daily Telegraph: a study at University College, London, found that abstaining from the party life style for four weeks heals the liver, and improves blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The researchers tracked 102 people who had all drunk heavily in December, then went teetotal for January. After the four-week break, their liver “stiffness” – an indication of damage – was reduced by 12.5%, on average; while resistance to insulin – a marker for diabetes risk – was down by 28%. The participants also typically lost 3kg in weight. Their blood pressure and cholesterol levels dropped, and many said they were finding it easier to sleep and to concentrate. The study is a larger version of one involving 10 journalists at New Scientist magazine, which got similar results earlier this year. However, neither study established how long the effects last if (or when) abstainers return to their former drinking levels.

Life on early Earth
In the first 700m years after the Earth’s formation, scientists have long believed, our planet was a hellish realm devoid of life – with asteroids raining down on a landscape riddled with volcanoes, molten rock, and poisonous gases. But new research suggests that life may have taken root in the Earth’s turbulent youth – 300 million years earlier than previously suspected, reports HuffingtonPost .com. Our planet formed roughly 4.5bn years ago, and was heavily volcanic for eons as it slowly cooled. The earliest fossil records date to about 3.8bn years ago, when single-celled creatures began to appear. But by studying tiny crystals that form in magma, called zircons, geochemists at the University of California at Los Angeles found microscopic flecks of pure carbon with a signature indicating it had been left behind by living organisms 4.1bn years ago. “Life on Earth may have started almost instantaneously,” says study co-author Mark Harrison. “With the right ingredients, life seems to form very quickly.” He said the study suggests that simple life-forms may be quite common
throughout the universe.

The plastic in your fish
Scientists have long suspected that waste dumped into the ocean would ultimately find its way into the seafood that ends up on dinner tables. A new study provides evidence that this is more than just a
theory, reports PopularScience.com. After analysing fish caught off the coasts of California and Indonesia and sold in local markets, researchers found 25% contained man-made debris. All of the fragments found in Indonesian fish were plastic, while textile fibres accounted for 80% of the debris found in fish from California. The study’s authors say this difference reflects the waste management strategies in each region. Indonesia often dumps garbage directly onto beaches and into rivers. The United States has more advanced waste-processing systems, including plastic recycling, but effluent from washing machines sent to wastewater treatment plants is laden with synthetic fibres. In each case, the waste is becoming part of marine habitats. “This is a wakeup  call,” says the study’s author, Chelsea Rochman, warning that waste dumped into oceans “might be coming back to haunt us through the food chain.” So far, researchers have found plastic and fibre in the fishes’ guts, not their flesh. But they noted that further research is needed.

Is Earth two planets in one?
Around four and a half billion years ago, a small planet, named Theia, collided with a  bigger one, the early Earth, blasting debris into orbit that became the moon – so thetheory goes. But while conventional wisdom has it that Theia merely sideswiped Earth and then carried on into space, scattering debris in its wake, new research suggests it actually smashed headon into Earth, fusing the two planets together. Researchers from the University of California analysed the moon rocks brought back by the Apollo missions, and volcanic rock from Earth’s mantle, to compare their oxygen isotopes. As rocks on each planetary body in the Solar System have a unique oxygen isotope ratio, they expected to find significant differences between those from Earth and those from the Moon, which would be expected to be made up largely of Theia. In fact, the isotopes turned out to be indistinguishable – suggesting that Theia and Earth became  one, and the moon was made from both.

Eat fruit to keep the weight off
Eating more fruit could help people stave off middleaged spread, a new study has found. The researchers looked at data on more than 124,000 people who had been tracked over 24 years, and found that typically, they put on a kilo or two every four years in middle age. However, those who had eaten diets rich in flavonoids – found in grapes, strawberries, blueberries, apples, pears and oranges, as well as peppers and onions – had tended not to gain any weight, despite consuming similar amounts of calories, while some had lost weight. “People tend to put on weight as they get older,” Aedin Cassidy, from the University of East Anglia, told The Times. “But we found that people who ate a few portions of flavonoidrich fruits and vegetables a week maintained a healthy weight and even lost a little.” Professor Cassidy conceded that she could not prove that it was the flavonoids that had kept people trim, but said that her team had tried to account for their general diet, as well
as their exercise levels.

A simple test for Alzheimer’s
A simple test of spatial awareness could be used to predict the onset of Alzheimer’s disease up to two years before symptoms appear, reports the Daily Mail. The Four Mountains test involves asking patients with mild cognitive impairment to look at a picture of a mountain. They are then shown three similar landscapes, one of which is the same one as in the original picture, but taken from a slightly different angle: the challenge is to identify that picture. According to researchers at Cambridge University, trial results suggest the test, developed a decade ago, can predict Alzheimer’s with 85% accuracy in people aged 60 to 79, making it nearly twice as accurate as current memory tests, and as accurate as expensive brain scans and lumbar punctures.

Why women yawn more than men
It is well established that yawning is contagious. Now researchers have found that it’s more “catching” among women – reinforcing the theory that contagious yawning is rooted in empathy. The team, from Italy’s Pisa University, observed more than 100 people – at work, in social situations, and elsewhere – over the course of five years, and noted how often they yawned, reports The Independent. They found both men and women yawned spontaneously at about the same rate; and that both sexes were more likely to “catch” a yawn from someone they were close to, or familiar with, than from a stranger. However, women were significantly more prone to contagious yawning than men. The researchers suggest this is because women have evolved to be more empathetic on account of their maternal role. However, previous studies have failed to find a gender link, and other experts said further evidence was needed.

Why aliens aren’t saying hello
For decades, astronomers have searched in vain for signals from extraterrestrial life, and now planetary scientists in Australia suggest there’s a good reason why aliens are so hard to find: They didn’t last long enough to develop intelligence. Most theoretically inhabitable planets have unstable environments, the researchers say; like Mars and Venus, planets can have an early temperate period but then be transformed into frozen wastelands with thin atmospheres or blistering worlds with boiling oceans. The microbial life that arises on these worlds almost always becomes extinct. “The universe is probably filled with habitable planets, so many scientists think it should be teeming with aliens,” author Aditya Chopra, an astrobiologist at Australian National University, told CBSNews.com. “But early life is fragile, so we believe it rarely evolves quickly enough to survive.” Since intelligent life appears to require billions of years of evolution on a planet with an unusually stable environment, he theorises, it may be extremely rare – and perhaps even unique to Earth.


anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:11:16 AM
TOP 10 MOST BIZARRE SCIENTIFIC THEORIES
Science is a strange, strange thing. The brightest minds come up with theories pertaining to our existence, space, and time – but sometimes they stretch beyond the boundaries of normalcy. In this installment, we’re scoping ten of the most bizarre scientific theories to be posed throughout time. You ready for this ride?

10. 21 Grams
Think about how much you weigh. If you’re not pleased with it, know that, according to the 21 Grams theory, you can subtract exactly that from your number to accommodate how much your soul weighs. So, maybe that's 1/20th of a pound or so, but that’s something, right? The theory came about with the research of Dr. Duncan MacDougall in the early 20th century. MacDougall observed several subjects as they died and believed he was able to determine when their souls left their bodies as their body weights were shown to drop 21 grams after death. MacDougall’s research is chided as incomplete and flawed due to the small sample size he used.

9. Holographic
Universe Theory In the words of the great Doctor Ellie Sattler, “It’s all an illusion!” Of course, the Holographic Universe Theory is talking more about the universe and everything contained within and not the perceived power of a dinosaur zoo… According to a team of theoretical physicists from the University of Southampton, our universe is nothing more than an illusion. Our 3D reality, then, would be stored on a 2D surface and not a thing we do matters because we only exist on this 2D plane as an illusion. The question we have is if we’re a holographic illusion, who is being entertained by us?

8. Lamb Trees
English Knight and traveler Sir John Mandeville is no stranger when it comes to spreading misinformation such as an island of dog-headed humans, but one of his most fantastical is that which spawned the theory that lambs grow on plants. In Mandeville’s writings, he spoke of a plant in Tartary, now present-day Russia and Mongolia, that produced gourds that sprouted lambs. For nearly 300 years, people actually debated Mandeville’s claim, among those involved being Italian polymath Girolamo Cardano, who used the lack of needed heat in soil to debunk the theory of the “lamb tree.”

7. Time Doesn’t Exist
Ready to have your mind blown? Consider then the scientific theory that states that time doesn’t exist. So what have I been wasting all of this time? Can I even use “time” in that sentence? My world is falling apart and it’s all thanks to Julian Barbour, the British physicist responsible for the theory that states time is nothing but an illusion. According to Barbour, there is no concrete evidence of the past, save for the memories we have, and the future is nothing more than a concept we’ve dreamed up. It’s the changes that we claim to go through that create this illusion of time. Barbour believes that individual moments that create the illusion of time, or Nows, are complete and exist in their own right.

6. Clockwork Universe Theory
Here’s a theory to tick off people of faith and atheists! Consider that, yes, God does exist, but his only contribution to the universe we live in was to set everything in motion. Then he steps aside and just watches it all unfold like a bad sitcom. Clockwork Universe Theory basically paints this image by comparing the universe to a mechanical clock that was wound up by God and then left to tick along. The laws of science, such as Newton’s laws of motion, are said to be the “gears” that keep the whole thing going.

5. Panspermia Theory
Where did life come from? It’s a question that many have tried to answer, but of all the incredible ideas put forth, the theory of Panspermia may be high on the bizarre list. According to the theory, some 4 billion years ago, Earth suffered a lengthy period of meteor showers. Upon these space rocks were thought to be the first organisms of Earth, meaning that life on our planet didn’t actually start here but rather elsewhere in the universe. While one could argue that no other planet can sustain life, Panspermia points to the resiliency of organisms like bacteria, which can sustain life in temperatures as high as235?F (113?C). This, supporters claim, makes it difficult to determine what conditions are ripe for life to form and thrive.

4. The Universe is a Computer
So, some people theorize that the universe is just one big computer, using mathematics and a pretty powerful CPU to simulate our world. Okay, fine, I’ll say it because you’re all thinking it: Just like The Matrix. It’s a theory that’s been supported by great minds like Elon Musk, who stated there’s a “billion to one” chance that we’re living in “base reality.”Whether we are a computer simulation or even a program designed by some super-intelligence really may not matter in the long run.That is, of course, until someone offers you a red and blue pill… Which would you take?

3. Spontaneous Generation
Have you ever wondered where maggots come from? I mean, when it comes to decayed food that’s left out. They seem to just kind of… appear, right? While many of us believe they don’t just spontaneously appear, there’s a school of thought that revolves around the Spontaneous Generation Theory that claims those maggots are actually formed through the nonliving matter of the meat.Another example is the existence of mice when a piece of bread or cheese is left out.

2. Zoo Theory
Maybe the most uncomfortable theory in this Archive, the zoo theorists believe that we are just one big attraction for some moreadvanced extraterrestrial race.The theory is often used as a reason why aliens have yet to contact Earth, claiming thesebeings would prefer to watch us evolve and thrive on our own without contaminating the environment we live in. In 1973, MIT radio astronomer John A. Ball proposed the idea that aliens are merely avoidingus, watching us from some deep corner of the galaxy. I prefer South Park's rendition where Earth is a reality TV show for aliens. I mean, who wouldn't want a talking hard shell taco that poops ice cream?

1. Garbage Theory
Austrian astrophysicist Thomas Gold caught our attention with another “panspermia” theory, that is, one that claims microorganisms exist throughout space. In this theory, Gold proposes that Earth was a literal junkyard for extraterrestrials. Rather than recycle their waste on their own planets, Aliens were traveling the galaxy,looking for a spot to unload their trash, when something went wrong, and it was all accidentally dumped on Earth. Within that waste lived the microorganisms that became the beginning of life on Earth. Won’t lie… I’m a little insulted by this one.

10 SCIENCE FACTS YOU DIDN'T LEARN IN SCHOOL
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anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:11:31 AM
The black hole wow factor
An amazing feat presages tougher challenges still to come
WOW. That was what Katie Bouman’s face said, in an image widely shared on social media, as she saw what she and her colleagues had made: the first picture of a black hole. If anyone wonders if science has
anything to offer, or is for them, take a look at the joy, disbelief and pride shown by the diverse, global
team of scientists who made it happen. Yes, it does, and yes, it is. Sometimes on an untrodden path, you need time to find the way. New Scientist reported on the first attempts to snap a black hole almost exactly 10 years ago, and we have checked in regularly since. In our special issue of 10 October 2015 celebrating
100 years of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, Heino Falcke, one of the Event Horizon Telescope’s prime movers, said he hoped the breakthrough would come within a decade.

Congratulations to the entire Event Horizon Telescope team – you got there. What a rich story lies behind the project. Let’s put it out there: there is no more fascinating, incomprehensible, majestic conception of a human mind than a black hole. Rips in the fabric of the universe, these points of infinite density and
curvature suck in anything that comes too near. Even Einstein baulked at accepting this consequence of his theory. We have spent the past few decades coming to terms with the fact that they – or something very like
them – are real. Now we can see them, perhaps we can begin to get to grips with what they are.

Directly imaging a black hole is the beginning of a story, not the end. What happens inside one? Following the paths you might take were you to be sucked in, as Chelsea Whyte does on page 30, is a delightful (if distinctly uncomfortable) conceit – but the variety of scenarios she sketches lays bare how little we know.
The truth is, black holes are a huge triumph and an even bigger challenge for current theories of physics. Events at their event horizons expose a yawning gap between general relativity and the other great load-bearing wall of modern physics, quantum theory The mathematical “singularity” of infinite density and space-time curvature that supposedly lies at the hearts of black holes is an admission of defeat in a universe ill set up to accommodate real, physical infinities.

For all the light that Einstein’s theories shed on the cosmos, they also cast a shadow we must be prepared to jump over. In what is fast becoming routine, the past week also saw the detection of two more gravitational waves, bringing the total number of these ripples in space-time we have seen to 13. But for general relativity to fully add up, the overwhelming weight of stuff in the universe must come in forms we have yet to see and struggle even to characterise: dark matter and dark energy. That conundrum is forcing modern physics to
breaking point. Better answers will require even better observations, and perhaps theories that bridge the quantumrelativity divide – the great, unresolved quest of fundamental physics. Those who wish to follow
in Bouman’s footsteps won’t lack problems to work on. Just: wow. How far we have come. How far we still have to go.

10 SCIENCE FACTS YOU DIDN'T LEARN IN SCHOOL
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anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:11:48 AM
sailing the Spice Islands

The islands that make up Indonesia’s Moluccas archipelago – or the Spice Islands – were once “the epicentre of a trade network that spanned and shaped the globe”, says Sarah Baxter in The Daily Telegraph. But you’d never know it to visit them today. North Maluku is the “original source” of all the cloves on the planet, but since its spice-trading heyday, it has been all but forgotten by the rest of the world. On a 12-day sailing trip around these forested islands, on the “elegant” ketch the Ombak Putih (“White Wave”), you’ll be one of only
24 passengers – and your shipmates are likely to be the only tourists you’ll see.

On the island of Bacan, the main fort – built by the Portuguese, “taken by the Spanish, rebuilt by the Dutch” – is now a “well-preserved” ruin. As visitors are rare, those that come off the boat are warmly, and sometimes grandly, welcomed. At Sanana, a line of dignitaries wait on the jetty, and men brandishing shields and machetes perform a ceremonious welcome to the beat of drums. You are then whisked around the sights – an Arabian-style mosque, a Bajau (“sea nomads”) village “teetering on stilts” and a market staffed by women wrapped in batik, their faces dabbed with the rice powder they use as sunscreen.

Itineraries combine visits to these “remote outposts” with snorkelling in “exquisite waters”. Close to the shores of a perfect beach, you’ll find yourself dropping “into underwater fireworks” – displays of dazzling corals, schools of sparkling fish, “swaying anemones with Nemos hiding inside” and reef sharks “slinking into the deep”. Each time, a “new, strange sub-aquatic beauty” reveals itself, from giant clams “pulsing their bright-spotted maws” to Banggai cardinalfish – “dainty showgirls with black fronds and pearly dots”. The latter are so popular with aquarium keepers that, sadly, they’re now increasingly rare in the waters to which they are endemic.

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anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:12:14 AM
The “first nuclear family”
A couple who lived with their two young children next to a lake in Denmark 11,000 years ago have been identified as the first nuclear family. The remains of the tiny settlement – nowhere near to any other – is controversial, because received academic wisdom is that for most of human history, people have preferred to live in extended groups, and that this remained the broad pattern until the Industrial Revolution. Previously, the best evidence that early humans lived in isolated family groups was a grave in Germany containing two adults and two boys – but that was only 4,600 year old, reports The Sunday Times. At the Danish site in Trollesgrave, researchers from the University of Bradford found the remains of a dwelling, a hearth and outbuildings, as well as hundreds of pieces of flint that had been “knapped” – shaped and sharpened into arrowheads and tools, some of which could have been used to scrape hides and stitch clothes. The tools were broken down into three groups, representing at least three people – a “master knapper”, an intermediate level one, and a trainee.

Earth’s twins spotted
The Kepler space telescope has found the two most Earth-like planets yet discovered, reports The Washington Post. Known as Kepler 438b and 442b, the two planets probably have rocky surfaces like Earth’s, and they orbit their respective stars in the “Goldilocks zone”, where temperatures are thought to be “just right” for the existence of liquid water, widely regarded as the essential ingredient for life. The planets were detected by means of “transits”, the periodic dimming of a star’s light caused when a planet orbits in front of it. Astronomers have calculated that both 438b and 442b are roughly the same size as Earth and are likely to have conditions hospitable to life as we know it. “We are now closer than we’ve ever been to finding a twin for Earth around another star,’’ said NASA scientist Fergal Mullally. Since its 2009 launch, Kepler has confirmed the existence of about 1,000 alien planets in solar systems throughout the galaxy.

A gift horse with sharp teeth
You might be delighted to be given a free laptop or phone – but if it’s being given to you by your boss, be cautious: new research has found that employees who are given this “perk” only end up feeling stressed by it. Psychologists at the University of Surrey analysed the experience of around 50,000 employees. This revealed that, in many cases, those given work devices were then expected to use them to deal with work calls and emails from home. They ended up working longer hours, with knock-on effects on their health and relationships. They “generally showed great enthusiasm at first when they received phones,” said researcher Svenja Schlachter. But “in the long run it became a burden.” The only clear advantage for employees that emerged was being more able to attend personal events, such as school sports days.

An overlooked Scottish monster
An ancient sea monster that resembled a dolphin crossed with a crocodile has been pieced together from fossils found on the Isle of Skye, reports The Daily Telegraph. The four metre-long creatures, which lived in the shallow seas off the coast of what is now Scotland 170 million years ago, would have been top-level predators, preying on fish and other reptiles. A type of ichthyosaur, the monster has been named Dearcmhara shawcrossi.
Pronounced “jark vara”, Dearcmhara is the Gaelic word for marine lizard. Shawcrossi is in honour of Brian
Shawcross, an amateur palaeontologist who found the fossils on a beach in 1959, and gave them to the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow in 1990. There, they were put in a box and ignored for years, until last year, a team from Edinburgh University took a look inside, and realised they’d stumbled upon an entirely new species. “During the time of the dinosaurs, the waters of Scotland were prowled by reptiles the size of motor boats,” said Dr Stephen Brusatte. “Their fossils are very rare. For the first time we have found a new species that
was uniquely Scottish.”

The bowhead’s ageing secrets
In an effort to find keys to longer life, scientists at the University of Liverpool have sequenced the genome of the bowhead whale, which has an average life span of 200 years. The research has so far revealed several mutations in the whales’ genes that are thought to be connected with repairing damaged DNA, an insight that may help explain why bowheads and other large marine mammals have such remarkably low rates of cancer. Other revelations from the bowhead genome may provide similar clues about the whale’s cell cycles, body temperatures, and overall ageing process. “Different long-lived species use different tricks to evolve long life spans,” lead researcher Jo?o Pedro de Magalh?es tells LiveScience.com. “By identifying novel maintenance
and repair mechanisms, we hope to learn the secret for living longer.”


anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:12:30 AM
TOP 10 OLDEST ANIMAL SPECIES ON EARTH
From jellyfish to the horseshoe shrimp, we count down the top 10 oldest animal species on earth.

10. Martialis heureka


120 Million Years Old: Considered the oldest ant species in the world, the Martialis heureka was found in the Amazon rainforest in the year 2000. Completely blind, this creature lives underground and comes up to forage at night. It can’t dig, so it has to rely on pre-existing tunnels. It’s so strange looking that the Martialis part of its name means “from Mars.” The coolest part of all? Its DNA has barely changed in the last 100 million years.

9. Horseshoe Shrimp


200 Million Years Old: Formerly known as the Triops cancriformis, this ancient shrimp species is no small fry when it comes to staying power. It was around when dinosaurs roamed the planet and shows no signs of slowing down. Adult horseshoe shrimp typically die when their habitats dry up – however, the babies have an advantage. Eggs can survive up to 20 years in extreme conditions. Talk about stubborn!

8. Sturgeon


200 Million Years Old: A sturgeon isn’t one type of fish – it actually refers to 27 different species, all as old as time. Sadly, despite their age, sturgeons are card carrying members of the endangered species list. People harvest them for their roe, an ingredient in caviar. It’s believed that four species in the sturgeon family are already extinct. When left alone, sturgeons live up to 60 years and can be found in North America and Eurasia.

7. Lamprey


360 Million Years Old: This “living fossil” won’t win any beauty pageants, but, boy, does it have a story to tell. Largely unchanged since its beginning, the lamprey  is an eel-like parasite that attaches itself to fish and feeds on body fluids. This action often severely injures or kills the host. Creepy and disgusting, right? But that’s not all. Lampreys can grow up to two feet in length. You wouldn’t want to run into one in a dark room.

6. Coelacanth


360 Million Years Old: Originally thought to be extinct, a museum curator discovered one living off the coast of South Africa in 1938. This rare fish is an object of fascination for scientists because of its similarity to the ancient fish that eventually evolved into the first land vertebrae. Many believe the “coelacanth genome” holds the key to learning more about our own evolution. Who knows what the future will bring?

5. Horseshoe Crab


445 Million Years Old: You’ve probably seen one of these at your local aquarium, but did you know this creature had such a long history? Horseshoe crabs live in shallow areas of the ocean and come to shore when it’s time to mate. Fishermen sometimes use them as bait to catch eels, and in China eggs are used as food. If you find these guys disturbing, know this – horseshoe crabs are related to arachnids, aka spiders.

4. Nautilus


500 Million Years Old: The nautilus lives on the “molted skins” of hermit crabs and lobsters and has an amazing sense of smell. It can grow to about 7 inches in diameter and lives for roughly 20 years. Prized for its attractive spiral shell that people like to collect, the nautilus is at risk for extinction. Areas that once housed hundreds of them now have only one or two.

3. Jellyfish


505 Million Years Old: In 2007, researchers at the University of Kansas discovered a fossil 200 million years older than the oldest known jellyfish fossil. We’re looking at a squishy blob that existed before the first land plants appeared. Jellyfish can grow about 6 feet in length but have very short lifespans. They feed on plankton, fish eggs, and other jellyfish.

2. Sponge


760 Million Years Old: Who lives in a pineapple under the sea? Actually, the sponge has been around since before pineapples existed. Found in both tropical and polar waters, the sponge usually attaches itself to firm surfaces like rocks. Believe it or not, some can live up to 200 years. Sponges are asexual and most function as hermaphrodites. There’s a story you can tell the kids in science class.

1. Cyanobacteria


3.5 Billion Years Old: Yep, we’re counting bacteria. Referred to as the “most successful group of microorganisms on earth,” you can find cyanobacteria in just about any spot with water. Foodies, take note. It’s often used as biofertilizer for rice.

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anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:12:49 AM
TOP 10 MOST EXPENSIVE FOODS IN THE WORLD
From hot chocolate infused with five grams of edible gold to fish eggs harvested fromb the rare albino beluga we countdown the 10 most expensive foods in the world.

10. Bombay Brassiere’s Sumandri Khazana Curry


Named as the world’s most expensive curry, this dish was made in dedication to the movie Slumdog Millionaire. Head Chef Prahlad Hedge prepares the dish with devon crab, white truffle, abalone sea snails, quail eggs and scottish lobster. The fish and seafood is marinated with chilli and tamarind paste, truffle is shaved over top and then a 10 gram edible piece of gold is added. This dish will cost you $3,200 and has been a popular edition to the restaurants menu.

9. Pizza Royale 007


Pizza is one of the most popular dishes in the world, so it’s no surprise that Domenico Crolla decided to make the world’s most expensive pizza. With champagne soaked caviar, lobster marinated in cognac and topped with 24 carat gold shavings, this pricey pizza will cost you $4200.

8. First Harvest Brisbane Mangoes


Fancy some fruit? Well pull out your wallet as these mangoes come with a hefty price tag of around $4200 per mango. Why so costly? The first harvest mangoes are auctioned off at a yearly charity event to grocers from around Australia. The Event has been going on for over 12 years, and has raised close to $800k since 2002.

7. Anqi Pho Soup


This vietnamese soup may be the world’s most expensive soup, and comes at a price of $5800. This decadent dish has blue lobster noodles, a5 Wagyu beef, white alba truffles and foie gras broth. Although expensive, all of the money is donated to a charity that helps benefit Children’s Hospitals.

6. Densuke Black Watermelons


Are extremely rare, and are only grown on the northern island of Hokkaido Japan. Usually with a price tag of around $200, one of these special melons was sold at auction for $6100. The Marine products dealer who put in the jaw dropping bid said he wanted to support local agriculture, making it the highest price ever paid a watermelon in japanese history.

5. Yubari King Melons


This tasty melon is a hybrid between two cantaloupe varieties, and is typically given as a gift during a traditional buddhist festival. Grown exclusively in Yubari Japan, they usually range from $50 to 100 per melon with the best melons of the year fetching up to $26,000 at auction.

4. Almas Caviar


Caviar is regarded as the most luxurious and exclusive food known to mankind. Almas Caviar comes from the Iranian Beluga fish which is found in the pristine waters of the Caspian Sea. These salted fish eggs are light in color, which is one of the reason they’re so expensive. Fetching up to 25,000 per kilo, almas caviar comes in a 24 karat gold tin, and is only sold at 1 location in the entire world.

3. Frrrozen Haute Chocolate


If you’re in New York City, make a stop by the serendipity 3 restaurant and check out this ridiculously expensive dessert. Coming in at the hefty price of $25,000, this mix of 28 cocoas from around the world comes served in a goblet lined with edible gold. With truffle flown in from france and gold flown in from switzerland, you’ll have to take out a loan from the bank to sample this luxurious delight.

2. Italian White Alba Truffle


This edible subterranean fungus is a prized delicacy by gourmet chefs around the world. Considered diamonds of the culinary world, white truffles are more rare than regular truffles and are found in the northern Italy. The record Price paid for a white truffle was set in December 2007, when casino owner Stanley Ho paid 165,000 for a truffle weighing 3.3 pounds.

1. Albino White Gold Caviar


Thought to be the most expensive food on the planet, this caviar comes from the white roe of the extremely rare albino sturgeon. Only eggs are used from older sturgeon, which are critically endangered from overfishing and poaching. Invented by fish Farmer Walter Gruell, these rare albino fish eggs are laced with 22 carat gold, and will set you back an astounding $305,000 per kilo. Hey guys fresh here, I hope you enjoyed my video on the 10 most expensive foods in the world.


anyaha เมื่อ พฤศจิกายน 03, 2019, 01:13:11 AM
TOP 10 SCIENCE FACTS NO LONGER TAUGHT IN SCHOOLS
Discovery is a fundamental aspect of scientific progression, but each new finding must also rain hell on a teacher’s lesson plan. Think about it, every change to what we once knew to be correct alters what children learn in school. It’s these changes in the curriculum that give us the content for this Archive of the top ten science facts no longer taught in schools. Before we get started, help us out by hitting that like button, and be sure to leave us a comment because we're always looking to engage in interesting conversations with you! Also, don't forget to click the bell so you get notified every time we put out a new video!

10. Paper Can Only Be Folded Seven Times
It may not have taken a large chunk out of the daily curriculum to discuss, but there is a very good chance that, at some point during science, the topic of folding paper popped up. It was once believed that paper could only be folded seven times before the energy needed to complete a crease became impossible to exert. With a standard piece of 8 1/2” x 11” (20x27 cm) paper, the surface area for the fold becomes too small to continue folding, but with larger samples, more than seven folds are possible – but also incredibly difficult. As MythBusters proved, it requires a little mechanical help to fold a football-field sized sheet of paper 11 times, but, it can be done.

9. The Bohr Model
Mapping the atom has been a lengthy process and, through it, misconceptions have been made. Consider the universal symbol of the atom, where the electrons orbit the nucleus in a circular manner much like the Solar System model. While the model introduced by Niels Bohr seemed accurate, it was later determined that electrons move in a random fashion over a 3D plane. Bohr’s model, which was first conceived in 1913, is a simplistic form of a very complex process and fails to depict the proper motion of electrons and the energy levels in atoms with multiple electrons.

8. Diamond is the Hardest Substance
Used in industrial drilling, the diamond was once considered the hardest substance, making it ideal for those difficult jobs. Though man-made nanomaterials have since robbed it of its title, the real upset came with simulations that showed wurtzite boron nitride as being 18% harder than diamond and the mineral lonsdaleite at 58% harder. Determining the accuracy of this claim stems strictly from simulations as both materials are extremely rare in nature and difficult to produce in a controlled setting, but looking at the bond flexibility in the atomic makeup of wurtzite boron nitride has lent credence to the belief.

7. The Three Phases of Matter
Looking at a glass of water, we know that it is in its liquid form, whereas when it is ice, it’s a solid, and when it’s steam, it’s a gas; but recent research into how matter would react at extremely high temperatures and pressures has revealed a fourth phase – plasma. When placed under temperatures and pressures like those that occur on the Sun, electrons no longer move around the nucleus, leaving behind a positively charged ion. The atomic breakdown, loose electrons, and remaining ion result in a fluid-like substance, or plasma, capable of generating electromagnetic forces.

6. There Are Only Five Senses
Believe it or not, ESP is not the sixth sense. According to a study delving into the human physiology, taste, hearing, sight, smell, and touch are the basic senses, but an awareness of balance, pain, temperature, and pressure have since been included. It doesn’t even stop there, either, as researchers have expanded the human senses to include “non-traditional senses” like proprioception, which tells your body where your body parts are in relation to one another, tension sensors, stretch receptors, chemoreceptors, thirst, hunger, magnetoception - or the ability to detect magnetic fields - time, and itching.

5. The Tastebud Map
At one point in time, it was popular to think that the tongue had four specific receptors responsible for tasting food categorized as bitter, sweet, sour, and salty. It was believed that only the tips of our tongue could taste sweet food while the taste buds in the back were reserved specifically for bitterness, but that couldn’t be any further from the truth. In fact, the roadmap to the tongue is far more complex and detailed with clusters of receptive cells located all over the tongue’s surface, each one capable of distinguishing different tastes.

4. The State of the Solar System
Much of what we believed about the Solar System has changed over the years, making it difficult for lesson plans to keep up. Among the multitude of discoveries is the possibility of water on Mars, a planet once thought to be dry and arid. In May of 2017, it was found that the space between Saturn and its rings is not filled with dust and debris as originally thought, but is in fact empty. Additionally, along with being downgraded to a Dwarf Planet, Pluto was also found to have signs of a subsurface ocean.

3. Brain Cells Don’t Regrow
While interactions with certain people may have you believe differently, the concept that the human brain doesn’t grow new cells is an antiquated belief. A Cornell University study observed the regeneration of cells in a laboratory dish while additional research using adult mice saw the unexpected growth of dendrites or the branch-like projections on neurons, some doubling their length in two weeks. The process of new brain cell growth, or  neurogenesis, is believed to be linked to improved moods and better memory and can combat some effects of aging.

2. The Oceans of the World
If you happen to have a map nearby, take a look at it. Does it just show the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic Oceans? If so, it may be time to toss that sucker out as there is now a fifth ocean – the Southern Ocean. In 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization drew the boundaries for the latest ocean, categorizing it as any water located below 60? south. Though the IHO is a United Nations-recognized body with a membership of over 80  countries, its drawing of the Southern Ocean boundaries has been refuted by several nations who continue to only recognize the four original charted waters.

1. Only Nine Planets
Nowadays, we’ve learned that space is a proverbial playground of extraterrestrial planets, to the point where it seems like a new one is discovered every week. Thinking back to schooling before the early 90’s, though, all that was ever talked about were the celestial bodies revolving around the Sun. Astronomers believed other planets existed beyond our nine neighbors, but it wasn’t until 1992 that the first exoplanet was physically discovered. The planet, 51 Pegasi b, got the ball rolling as, in the 15 years that have passed, over 3,000 exoplanets have been confirmed, with over 100 billion unconfirmed bodies believed to be within the Milky Way alone.

10 SCIENCE FACTS YOU DIDN'T LEARN IN SCHOOL
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